The Drake Equation
N of currently extant civilizations in our galaxy that would be able to contact each other.
N = (R_s)(f_p)(n_p)(f_b)(f_i)(f_c)(L_c) "where R_s is the rate of star formation in the Galaxy, f_p is the fraction of those stars with planetary systems, n_p is the mean number of planets suitable for life per planetary system, f_b is the fraction of those planets suitable for life on which life actually developed, f_i is the fraction of those planets with life on which intelligent organisms have evolved, f_c is the fraction of those intelligent species that have developed communicatative civilizations, and L_c is the mean lifetime of those civilizations."
back to Objection 32
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The Good Drug Guide
MDMA: Utopian Pharmacology
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World